For this update, I switched to Visual C++ 2012 Professional. The ultimate goal is a 64-bit version, but this still requires some changes in the code. Currently, I can compile for 64-bit with lots of warnings and the code runs with only minor problems in the interface.
It turned out that setting up the project for VS2012 with default settings did not work. I had to change the code a bit to make it independent of the order of binding. I also had to set some switches for the compiler, which are now documented in the compiler settings.
It also turns out, that there were compatibility issues. I had to update VS2010 to Update 1, which contains a VC110-XP runtime model. This model runs on all machines from XP to Windows 8. I use it for Euler and for the Python interface.
Moreover, I now compile and bind to the Visual C++ runtime statically. This avoids the problems with the missing runtime DLL.